By Andreas Christensen, Olli Kesti, Varpu Elenius, Anna L. Eskola, Henrik Døllner, Can Altunbulakli, Cezmi A. Akdis, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Tuomas Jartti
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, June 2019
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), belonging to the Parvoviridae family, was discovered in 2005, in nasopharyngeal samples from children with respiratory tract infections. Three additional bocaviruses, HBoV2-4, were discovered in 2009-10. These viruses have mainly been found in faecal samples and their role in human diseases is still uncertain. HBoV1 causes a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases in children, including common cold, acute otitis media, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and asthma exacerbations. HBoV1 DNA can persist in airway secretions for months after an acute infection. Consequently, acute HBoV1 infection cannot be diagnosed with standard DNA PCR; quantitative PCR and serology are better diagnostic approaches. Because of their high clinical specificity, diagnostic developments such as HBoV1 mRNA and antigen detection have shown promising results. This Review summarises the knowledge on human bocaviruses, with a special focus on HBoV1.