National, regional, and state-level all-cause and cause-specific under-5 mortality in India in 2000–15: a systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals

By Li Liu, Yue Chu, Shefali Oza, Dan Hogan, Jamie Perin, Diego G Bassani, et al.

 The Lancet Global Health, June 1, 2019

 

India had the largest number of under-5 deaths of all countries in 2015, with substantial subnational disparities. We estimated national and subnational all-cause and cause-specific mortality among children younger than 5 years annually in 2000–15 in India to understand progress made and to consider implications for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) child survival targets.

 

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National, regional, and state-level burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in children in India: modelled estimates for 2000–15

By Brian Wahl, Apoorva Sharan, Maria Deloria Knoll, Prof Rajesh Kumar, Li Liu, Yue Chu, et al.

 The Lancet Global Health, June 1, 2019

 

India accounts for a disproportionate burden of global childhood illnesses. To inform policies and measure progress towards achieving child health targets, we estimated the annual national and state-specific childhood mortality and morbidity attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) between 2000 and 2015.

 

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National, regional, and global levels and trends in neonatal mortality between 1990 and 2017, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis

By Lucia Hug, Monica Alexander, Danzhen You, Leontine Alkema on behalf of the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation

The Lancet Global Health, June 1, 2019

 

Reducing neonatal mortality is an essential part of the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), to end preventable child deaths. To achieve this aim will require an understanding of the levels of and trends in neonatal mortality. We therefore aimed to estimate the levels of and trends in neonatal mortality by use of a statistical model that can be used to assess progress in the SDG era. With these estimates of neonatal mortality between 1990 and 2017, we then aimed to assess how different targets for neonatal mortality could affect the burden of neonatal mortality from 2018 to 2030.

 

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Human bocaviruses and paediatric infections

By Andreas Christensen, Olli Kesti, Varpu Elenius, Anna L. Eskola, Henrik Døllner, Can Altunbulakli, Cezmi A. Akdis, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Tuomas Jartti

The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, June 2019

 

 

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), belonging to the Parvoviridae family, was discovered in 2005, in nasopharyngeal samples from children with respiratory tract infections. Three additional bocaviruses, HBoV2-4, were discovered in 2009-10. These viruses have mainly been found in faecal samples and their role in human diseases is still uncertain. HBoV1 causes a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases in children, including common cold, acute otitis media, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and asthma exacerbations. HBoV1 DNA can persist in airway secretions for months after an acute infection. Consequently, acute HBoV1 infection cannot be diagnosed with standard DNA PCR; quantitative PCR and serology are better diagnostic approaches. Because of their high clinical specificity, diagnostic developments such as HBoV1 mRNA and antigen detection have shown promising results. This Review summarises the knowledge on human bocaviruses, with a special focus on HBoV1.

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Impaired Proinflammatory Response in Stringently Defined Otitis-prone Children During Viral Upper Respiratory Infections

By Dabin Ren, Qingfu Xu, Anthony L Almudevar, Michael E Pichichero

Clinical Infectious Diseases, May 2019

 

Viral upper respiratory infections (URIs) are common and often precipitate acute otitis media (AOM), caused by bacterial otopathogens, in young children. Acute inflammatory responses initiated in the early phase of viral URI contribute to preventing the development of AOM. Stringently-defined otitis-prone (sOP) children are susceptible to recurrent AOM.

 

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