Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000–2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study

By Jonathan F Mosser, MD, William Gagne-Maynard, MS, Puja C Rao, MPH, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, MS, Nancy Fullman, MPH, Nicholas Graetz, MPH, et al.

The Lancet, May 2019

 

Estimated third-dose (DPT3) coverage increased in 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 64·6–80·3) of second-level administrative units in Africa from 2000 to 2016, but substantial geographical inequalities in DPT coverage remained across and within African countries. In 2016, DPT3 coverage at the second administrative (ie, district) level varied by more than 25% in 29 of 52 countries, with only two (Morocco and Rwanda) of 52 countries meeting the Global Vaccine Action Plan target of 80% DPT3 coverage or higher in all second-level administrative units with high confidence (posterior probability ≥95%). Large areas of low DPT3 coverage (≤50%) were identified in the Sahel, Somalia, eastern Ethiopia, and in Angola. Low first-dose (DPT1) coverage (≤50%) and high relative dropout (≥30%) together drove low DPT3 coverage across the Sahel, Somalia, eastern Ethiopia, Guinea, and Angola.

 

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Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Influenza-associated Hospitalizations During Pregnancy: A Multi-country Retrospective Test Negative Design Study, 2010–2016

By Mark G Thompson, Jeffrey C Kwong, Annette K Regan, Mark A Katz, Steven J Drews, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Nicola P Klein, Hannah Chung, Paul V Effler, Becca S Feldman, Kimberley Simmonds, Brandy E Wyant, Fatimah S Dawood,  Michael L Jackson, Deshayne B Fell, Avram Levy, Noam Barda, Lawrence W Svenson, Rebecca V Fink, Sarah W Ball, Allison Naleway

Clinical Infectious Diseases, May 2019

 

The Pregnancy Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (PREVENT) consisted of public health or healthcare systems with integrated laboratory, medical, and vaccination records in Australia, Canada (Alberta and Ontario), Israel, and the United States (California, Oregon, and Washington). Sites identified pregnant women aged 18 through 50 years whose pregnancies overlapped with local influenza seasons from 2010 through 2016. Administrative data were used to identify hospitalizations with acute respiratory or febrile illness (ARFI) and clinician-ordered real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing for influenza viruses. Overall IVE was estimated using the test-negative design and adjusting for site, season, season timing, and high-risk medical conditions

 

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Safety and Immunogenicity of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in a High-risk Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial of 10-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Papua New Guinean Infants

By William S Pomat, Anita H J van den Biggelaar, Sandra Wana, Jacinta P Francis, Vela Solomon, Andrew R Greenhill, Rebecca Ford, Tilda Orami, Megan Passey, Peter Jacoby, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Deborah Lehmann, Peter C Richmond

Clinical Infectious Diseases, May 2019

 

PCV10 and PCV13 were studied head-to-head in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea in which 262 infants received 3 doses of PCV10 or PCV13 at 1, 2, and 3 months of age. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations, and pneumococcal and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) carriage were assessed prevaccination and at 4 and 9 months of age. Infants were followed up for safety until 9 months of age.

 

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Persistence of Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes and Increase of Nonvaccine Serotypes Among Vaccinated Infants and Their Mothers 5 Years After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine 13 in The Gambia

By Effua Usuf, Christian Bottomley, Ebrima Bojang, Isatou Cox, Abdoulie Bojang, Rebecca Gladstone, Beate Kampmann, Philip C Hill, Anna Roca

Clinical Infectious Diseases, May 2019

 

The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has brought about a dramatic decrease in pneumococci of vaccine serotypes (VTs) but nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) have emerged.

 

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Sustaining pneumococcal vaccination after transitioning from Gavi support: a modelling and cost-effectiveness study in Kenya

by John Ojal, PhD; Ulla Griffiths, PhD; Laura L Hammitt, MD; Ifedayo Adetifa, PhD; Donald Akech, BSc; Collins Tabu, PhD; et al.

To be published in The Lancet Global Health, May 2019. 

 

 

In 2009, Gavi, the World Bank, and donors launched the pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment, which helped countries access more affordable pneumococcal vaccines. As many low-income countries begin to reach the threshold at which countries transition from Gavi support to self-financing (3-year average gross national income per capita of US$1580), they will need to consider whether to continue pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use at full cost or to discontinue PCV in their childhood immunisation programmes. Using Kenya as a case study, researchers assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of continuing PCV use.

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